Acacia dealbata-

Common name(s) Acacia, mimosa, silver wattle.

Toxin(s) None known.

Toxic part(S) None known.

Signs Has been known to cause grazing animals to lose control of their muscles after long-term consumption. Has been reported to cause rashes.

Treatment Since no cases of small animal poisoning were found, no specific treatment can be suggested.


Acalypha spp.-

Common name(s) Acalypha, chenille plant, red-hot cattail, foxtail, philippine medusa, Jacob's coat, copperleaf, fire dragon, beefsteak plant, match-me-if -you -can.

Toxin(s) Diterpenes.

Toxic part(S) Latex.

Signs Causes nausea and vomiting. GI upset. Rashes.

Treatment Symptomatic and supportive (see Section One).

   
Acokanthera spp.-

Common name(S) Bushman's poison, poison bush, poison tree, wintersweet.

Toxin(s) Cardiac glycoside (resembles ouabain).

Toxic part(S) Distributed throughout the plant in varying amounts. The seeds contain the highest concentration, the wood,
stems, and leaves contain less, and the fruit contains the least.

Signs Pain, cramping, pawing at the mouth, diarrhea. Cardiac dysrhythmias, conduction defects, and hyperkalemia may be seen in a clinical work-up.

Treatment induce emesis or perform gastric lavage if ingestion was recent and the patient is not showing systemic signs. Administer activated charcoal and a cathartic (. Repeat in 3, to 4 hours. Treat hyperkalemia if detected. Monitor ECG and treat dysrhythmias by generally accepted means. if bradycardia is unresponsive to atropine, consider cardiac pacing. Dialysis and diuresis are not effective in enhancing elimination.

Aconiturn spp.-

Common name(S) Aconite, friar's cap, friar's-cowl, soldier's-cap, turk's cap, helmet flower, monkshood (garden m., yellow m., western m., wild m.), wolfsbane, bear's foot.

Toxin(s) Alkaloids including aconitine.

Toxic part(S) All, including vase water.

Signs The alkaloid aconitine disrupts heart nerve impulses at low doses and inhibits them at higher doses. Causes irritation to mucous membranes of the mouth when ingested. Salivating, nausea, and vomiting are common. Some animals may appear nearly or completely blind. People report blurred vision. These signs are followed by cardiac dysrhythmias and death.

Treatment Treatment is supportive . Treat dysrhythmias as necessary. Usually refractory to treatment. Bradycardia is treated with atropine. Ventricular dysrhythmias have been treated with phenytoin.

Actaea spp.-

Common name(S) Baneberry, cohosh, doll's-eyes, herb Christopher, necklaceweed, red baneberry, snakeberry, western baneberry.

Toxin(s) Unknown.

Toxic part(S) Berries and roots.

Signs Intense mucous membrane irritation and pain (which usually limits amount ingested). Salivation, vomiting (hemorrhagic), diarrhea, cramping, and abdominal pain. Renal damage is possible. CNS signs include dizziness, ataxia, confusion, apparent hallucinations, syncope, and possible convulsions.

Treatment The irritating nature of the toxin normally prohibits ingesting enough toxin to cause systemic signs. If signs are present, gastric and enteric emptying will probably already have occurred. If not, induction of emesis (p. 50) or gastric lavage (p. 52) are appropriate followed by activated charcoal. (it has not been shown scientifically that activated charcoal is effective in the treatment of Actaea spp. poisoning but will cause no harm and may help.) Appropriate fluid therapy is essential to prevent perfusion or hydration problems. Electrolyte imbalances should be corrected as needed. Renal function must be monitored to detect renal damage.


Aesculus spp. -   

Common name(S) Horse chestnut, buckeye, bongay, conquerors, fish poison, Texas buckeye.

Toxin(s) Possibly several, including saportins, narcotic alkaloids, or glycosides.

Toxic part(S) Nuts, twigs, flowers, possibly leaves.

Signs Causes gastroenteritis, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalances. Dilated pupils and mental dullness may be seen. in severe poisonings, tremors followed by paralysis, convulsions, coma, and death may be seen.

Treatment Symptomatic and supportive (see Section One). Gastric and enteric emptying is usually unnecesary because the patient is usually vomiting and has diarrhea. If the ingestion was witnessed and the patient is not showing signs, induction of emesis or gastric emptying with lavage is appropriate. Administration of a cathartic is indicated. Balance fluid and electrolyte needs.

Aethusa cynapium-

Common name(S) Fool's parsley, dog parsley, dog poison, false parsley, fool's cicely, lesser hemlock, small hemlock.

Toxin(s) Aethusin, related to cicutoxin.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Most commonly only nausea and vomiting seen. Severe signs could include convulsions, respiratory arrest, and death, but concentration is usually too low to cause these signs

EMERGENCY TREATMENT

Procedures

1.    Secure the airway and ventilate if needed (pp. 5, 9). 2. Administer supplemental oxygen (p. 7).

2.   Secure venous access. Collect blood and urine for laboratory testing.

3.    Administer isotonic crystalloids as needed to support blood pressure and perfusion.

4.    Control seizures

Decontaminate

Induce emesis only if the ingestion was within the last 60 minutes and the patient shows no clinical signs. Perform gastric lavage if the ingestion was within the last 2 to 4 hours. Give repeated doses of activated charcoal. Administer saline cathartic. Magnesium- containing solutions should be avoided.

•    Consider whole bowel irrigation using CoLyte or GoLytely.

•    Monitor and correct electrolyte imbalances.

 

Agaricus spp.

See Mushrooms

Aleurites spp.-

Common name(s) Japan oil tree, tung nut, tung oil tree, Chinawood oil tree, candlenut, candleberry, country walnut, Jamaican walnut, Indian walnut, Otaheite walnut, mu tree* (A. montana), mu oil tree.

Toxin(s) A derivative of phorbol, an irritant.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Signs are related to gastroenteritis, fluid loss, or electrolyte imbalances.

Treatment Induce emesis or perform gastric lavage if necessary. Administer activated charcoal and cathartic if necessary
(not usually necessary because these patients most commonly have vomiting and diarrhea from the toxin). Administer fluids to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Correct electrolyte imbalances. Administer analgesic medication if abdominal pain is noted.

Allamanda cathartica-

Common name(S) Allarnanda, yellow allarnanda.

Toxin(s) Unknown.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Usually a mild catharsis; however, persistent diarrhea may be seen.

Treatment Usually none is necessary.

 

Alocasia spp.

Common name(S) Elephant's ear (preferable genus name is Colocasia).

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly other irritant proteins.

Toxic part(S) Leaves and stems.

Signs Oral pain, edema of the mouth and oropharynx, rarely swelling will interfere with swallowing or breathing.

Treatment Usually none necessary. The irritant nature of the toxin usully prevents serious ingestion in animals.
Treatment of the oral pain and swelling is symptomatic.
Rarely the swelling may require that the airway be secured.


Aloe spp.-

Common name(S) Aloe.

Toxin(s) Barbaloin is found in the latex under the skin.

Toxic part(S) Latex under the skin of the plant.

Signs Usually a pronounced catharsis is seen after ingestion. If the patient 1, as alkaline urine, the toxin may cause it to turn red. Nephritis may be caused by large ingestions.

Treatment Rarely necessary. if anything, fluids may be required to replace losses from the purgative action.

 

Amanita spp.   

SeeMushrooms,


Amaryffls spp.-

Commonname(S) Amaryllis, Barbados lily, belladonna lily, cape belladonna, lirio, naked lady lily, pink-lady, resurrection lily. (See also Hippeastrum spp.)

Toxin(s) Lycorine (an emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.

Toxic part(S) Bulbs.

Signs Related to gastroenteritis--usually mild vomiting, diarrhea.

Treatment Rarely necessary. Fluid replacement may be required in patients more severely affected.

 

Anemone spp.

Common name(s) Pasqueflower, anemone, April fool, cat's-eyes, gosling, hartshorn plant, lily of the field, lion's beard, nightcaps, nimble weed, prairie crocus, prairie hen's flower, prairie smoke, thimbleweed, tuber anemone, wild crocus, windflower.

Toxin(s) Protoanemonin.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs The toxin is quite irritating to mucous membranes. Blisters are commonly seen after the plant is chewed. Ingestion is rare. If ingested, signs of severe, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis are seen and may lead to shock. Convulsions and death are possible.

Treatment Usually only symptomatic for oral vesicles or ulceration (see Section One). Rarely, gastric emptying may be required if large ingestions are witnessed. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are administered after gastric emptying. Fluids are administered to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as necessary. Seizures are controlled by generally accepted means (p. 24). Analgesics may be indicated.

Anthurium spp.-

Common name(S) Anthurium, anturio, flamingo flower, flamingo lily, pigtail plant, tailflower.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(S) Leaves and plants.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Occasionally analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocortico steroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely the swelling will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway .

Apocynum spp.

Common name(S) Dogbane, hemp dogbane, Indian hemp, prairie dogbane, spreading dogbane.

Toxin(s) Cardiac glycosides.

Toxic part(S) Entire plant.

Signs Most of today's literature is based on a report that may have confused the dogbanes with Nerium oleander, because both genera belong to the Apocynaceae family. Signs in animals are said to be cold extremities, hyperthermia, hypothermia, mydriasis, sore mouth, anorexia, gastric distress, tachycardia (or bradycardia), and death.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive (see Section One). Digoxin immune Fab (ovine) (Digibind, Glaxo Wellcome, Inc., Research Triangle Park, N.C.) has been reported to be of value in treating animals poisoned by ingesting oleander. Human poison control centers do not recommend it for cases of dogbane ingestion.

Arbrus precatorius-

Common name(S) Bead or red bead vine, black-eyed Susan, coral bead plant, crab's-eye vine, Indian or wild licorice or licorice vine, love bean, lucky bean, rosary pea, prayer bead, prayer bean, Seminole bread, weather plant or vine.

Toxin(s) Abrin, which inhibits protein synthesis in cells of the intestinal wall.

Toxic part(S) The seed is the toxic part. if it is swallowed whole, it will usually pass without release of the toxic principle.

Signs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (sometimes hemorrhagic), hypovolemia, electrolyte disturbances.

Treatment The effects may not be seen until many hours to days after ingestion. Gastric or enteric emptying is unrewarding in patients who are showing signs. Treatment is supportive. Administer fluids to support hydration and perfusion. Electrolytes must be determined and imbalances corrected.


Argemone spp.

Common name(s) Prickly poppy, thornapple.

Toxin(s) Toxic alkaloids including protopine, berberine, sanguinarine, and dihydrosanguinarine.

Toxic part(s) Mostly the seeds or oil from the seeds.

Signs Small animals are unlikely to be poisoned by this plant. The alkaloids will cause gastrointestinal disturbances, if ingested.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.


Arisaema spp.

Commonname(s) Green dragon, dragon arum, dragon tail, dragon's-head (A. draconitium; do not confuse with the mint Dracocephalum), Jack-in-the-pulpit, bog onion, brown dragon, cuckoo plant, memory root, pepper turnip, priests pentle (A. triphyllum), starchwort, three-leaved Indian turnip, wakerobin.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glu co corticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely, the swelling will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway.

Arum spp.

Common name(S) Adam-and-Eve plant, black calla, caladium, cuckoopint, Italian arum, Solomon's lily.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocorticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely, swelling of the tongue, glottis, or pharynx will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway.