Toxic Plants
Complete Listing
Genus/Species & Common Names
Click Here for Common Name Index

 

Listed here are plants poisonous or toxic to cats that must be avoided if there are cats in your home. Note that lilies(*), in particular, are dangerous to cats. While in some cases, just parts of a plant (bark, leaves, seeds, berries, roots, tubers, spouts, green shells) might be poisonous, this list rules out the whole plant if any part is toxic. If you must have any of them, keep them safely out of reach.

Should your cat eat part of a poisonous plant, rush the cat to your veterinarian as soon as possible. If you can, take the plant with you for ease of identification.

If you do not see a particular plant on this list, the omission DOES NOT indicate the plant is not poisonious.  Always check with your veterinarian before bringing any plant into your home.

 

Additional Listings are in Production


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Acacia dealbata

Common name(s) Acacia, mimosa, silver wattle.

Toxin(s) None known.

Toxic part(S) None known.

Signs Has been known to cause grazing animals to lose control of their muscles after long-term consumption. Has been reported to cause rashes.

Treatment Since no cases of small animal poisoning were found, no specific treatment can be suggested.


Acalypha spp.

Common name(s) Acalypha, chenille plant, red-hot cattail, foxtail, philippine medusa, Jacob's coat, copperleaf, fire dragon, beefsteak plant, match-me-if -you -can.

Toxin(s) Diterpenes.

Toxic part(S) Latex.

Signs Causes nausea and vomiting. GI upset. Rashes.

Treatment Symptomatic and supportive (see Section One).

   
Acokanthera spp.

Common name(S) Bushman's poison, poison bush, poison tree, wintersweet.

Toxin(s) Cardiac glycoside (resembles ouabain).

Toxic part(S) Distributed throughout the plant in varying amounts. The seeds contain the highest concentration, the wood,
stems, and leaves contain less, and the fruit contains the least.

Signs Pain, cramping, pawing at the mouth, diarrhea. Cardiac dysrhythmias, conduction defects, and hyperkalemia may be seen in a clinical work-up.

Treatment induce emesis or perform gastric lavage if ingestion was recent and the patient is not showing systemic signs. Administer activated charcoal and a cathartic (. Repeat in 3, to 4 hours. Treat hyperkalemia if detected. Monitor ECG and treat dysrhythmias by generally accepted means. if bradycardia is unresponsive to atropine, consider cardiac pacing. Dialysis and diuresis are not effective in enhancing elimination.

Aconitum spp.

Common name(S) Aconite, friar's cap, friar's-cowl, soldier's-cap, turk's cap, helmet flower, monkshood (garden m., yellow m., western m., wild m.), wolfsbane, bear's foot.

Toxin(s) Alkaloids including aconitine.

Toxic part(S) All, including vase water.

Signs The alkaloid aconitine disrupts heart nerve impulses at low doses and inhibits them at higher doses. Causes irritation to mucous membranes of the mouth when ingested. Salivating, nausea, and vomiting are common. Some animals may appear nearly or completely blind. People report blurred vision. These signs are followed by cardiac dysrhythmias and death.

Treatment Treatment is supportive . Treat dysrhythmias as necessary. Usually refractory to treatment. Bradycardia is
treated with atropine. Ventricular dysrhythmias have been treated with phenytoin.

Actaea spp.-

Common name(S) Baneberry, cohosh, doll's-eyes, herb Christopher, necklaceweed, red baneberry, snakeberry, western baneberry.

Toxin(s) Unknown.

Toxic part(S) Berries and roots.

Signs Intense mucous membrane irritation and pain (which usually limits amount ingested). Salivation, vomiting (hemorrhagic), diarrhea, cramping, and abdominal pain. Renal damage is possible. CNS signs include dizziness, ataxia, confusion, apparent hallucinations, syncope, and possible convulsions.

Treatment The irritating nature of the toxin normally prohibits ingesting enough toxin to cause systemic signs. If signs are present, gastric and enteric emptying will probably already have occurred. If not, induction of emesis (p. 50) or gastric lavage (p. 52) are appropriate followed by activated charcoal. (it has not been shown scientifically that activated charcoal is effective in the treatment of Actaea spp. poisoning but will cause no harm and may help.) Appropriate fluid therapy is essential to prevent perfusion or hydration problems. Electrolyte imbalances should be corrected as needed. Renal function must be monitored to detect renal damage.

Aesculus spp.    

Common name(S) Horse chestnut, buckeye, bongay, conquerors, fish poison, Texas buckeye.

Toxin(s) Possibly several, including saportins, narcotic alkaloids, or glycosides.

Toxic part(S) Nuts, twigs, flowers, possibly leaves.

Signs Causes gastroenteritis, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalances. Dilated pupils and mental dullness may be seen. in severe poisonings, tremors followed by paralysis, convulsions, coma, and death may be seen.

Treatment Symptomatic and supportive . Gastric and enteric emptying is usually unnecesary because the patient is usually vomiting and has diarrhea. If the ingestion was witnessed and the patient is not showing signs, induction of emesis or gastric emptying with lavage is appropriate. Administration of a cathartic is indicated. Balance fluid and electrolyte needs.



Aethusa cynapium


Common name(S) Fool's parsley, dog parsley, dog poison, false parsley, fool's cicely, lesser hemlock, small hemlock.

Toxin(s) Aethusin, related to cicutoxin.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Most commonly only nausea and vomiting seen. Severe signs could include convulsions, respiratory arrest, and death, but concentration is usually too low to cause these signs

EMERGENCY TREATMENT

Procedures

1.    Secure the airway and ventilate if needed. 2. Administer supplemental oxygen..

2.   Secure venous access. Collect blood and urine for laboratory testing.

3.    Administer isotonic crystalloids as needed to support blood pressure and perfusion.

4.    Control seizures

Decontaminate

Induce emesis only if the ingestion was within the last 60 minutes and the patient shows no clinical signs. Perform gastric lavage if the ingestion was within the last 2 to 4 hours. Give repeated doses of activated charcoal. Administer saline cathartic. Magnesium- containing solutions should be avoided.

•    Consider whole bowel irrigation using CoLyte or GoLytely.

•    Monitor and correct electrolyte imbalances.

 

Agaricus spp.

See Mushrooms

 

Aleurites spp.

Common name(s) Japan oil tree, tung nut, tung oil tree, Chinawood oil tree, candlenut, candleberry, country walnut, Jamaican walnut, Indian walnut, Otaheite walnut, mu tree* (A. montana), mu oil tree.

Toxin(s) A derivative of phorbol, an irritant.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Signs are related to gastroenteritis, fluid loss, or electrolyte imbalances.

Treatment Induce emesis or perform gastric lavage if necessary. Administer activated charcoal and cathartic if necessary
(not usually necessary because these patients most commonly have vomiting and diarrhea from the toxin). Administer fluids to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Correct electrolyte imbalances. Administer analgesic medication if abdominal pain is noted.

 

Allamanda cathartica

Common name(S) Allarnanda, yellow allarnanda.

Toxin(s) Unknown.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Usually a mild catharsis; however, persistent diarrhea may be seen.

Treatment Usually none is necessary.

 

Allium spp.

See Onion and Garlic (Field) toxicity

 

Alocasia spp.  

Common name(S) Elephant's ear (preferable genus name is Colocasia).

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly other irritant proteins.

Toxic part(S) Leaves and stems.

Signs Oral pain, edema of the mouth and oropharynx, rarely swelling will interfere with swallowing or breathing.

Treatment Usually none necessary. The irritant nature of the toxin usully prevents serious ingestion in animals.
Treatment of the oral pain and swelling is symptomatic.
Rarely the swelling may require that the airway be secured.

 

Aloe spp.

Common name(S) Aloe.

Toxin(s) Barbaloin is found in the latex under the skin.

Toxic part(S) Latex under the skin of the plant.

Signs Usually a pronounced catharsis is seen after ingestion. If the patient 1, as alkaline urine, the toxin may cause it to turn red. Nephritis may be caused by large ingestions.

Treatment Rarely necessary. if anything, fluids may be required to replace losses from the purgative action.

 

Amanita spp.

See Mushrooms

 

Amaryllis spp.

Commonname(S) Amaryllis, Barbados lily, belladonna lily, cape belladonna, lirio, naked lady lily, pink-lady, resurrection lily. (See also Hippeastrum spp.)

Toxin(s) Lycorine (an emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.

Toxic part(S) Bulbs.

Signs Related to gastroenteritis--usually mild vomiting, diarrhea.

Treatment Rarely necessary. Fluid replacement may be required in patients more severely affected.

 

Anemone spp.-

Common name(s) Pasqueflower, anemone, April fool, cat's-eyes, gosling, hartshorn plant, lily of the field, lion's beard, nightcaps, nimble weed, prairie crocus, prairie hen's flower, prairie smoke, thimbleweed, tuber anemone, wild crocus, windflower.

Toxin(s) Protoanemonin.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs The toxin is quite irritating to mucous membranes. Blisters are commonly seen after the plant is chewed. Ingestion is rare. If ingested, signs of severe, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis are seen and may lead to shock. Convulsions and death are possible.

Treatment Usually only symptomatic for oral vesicles or ulceration. Rarely, gastric emptying may be required if large ingestions are witnessed. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are administered after gastric emptying. Fluids are administered to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as necessary. Seizures are controlled by generally accepted means. Analgesics may be indicated.

 

Anthurium spp.

Common name(S) Anthurium, anturio, flamingo flower, flamingo lily, pigtail plant, tailflower.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(S) Leaves and plants.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Occasionally analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocortico steroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely the swelling will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway .

 

Apocynum spp.

Common name(S) Dogbane, hemp dogbane, Indian hemp, prairie dogbane, spreading dogbane.

Toxin(s) Cardiac glycosides.

Toxic part(s) Entire plant.

Signs Most of today's literature is based on a report that may have confused the dogbanes with Nerium oleander, because both genera belong to the Apocynaceae family. Signs in animals are said to be cold extremities, hyperthermia, hypothermia, mydriasis, sore mouth, anorexia, gastric distress, tachycardia (or bradycardia), and death.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive (see Section One). Digoxin immune Fab (ovine) (Digibind, Glaxo Wellcome, Inc., Research Triangle Park, N.C.) has been reported to be of value in treating animals poisoned by ingesting oleander. Human poison control centers do not recommend it for cases of dogbane ingestion.

 

Arbrus precatorius

Common name(S) Bead or red bead vine, black-eyed Susan, coral bead plant, crab's-eye vine, Indian or wild licorice or licorice vine, love bean, lucky bean, rosary pea, prayer bead, prayer bean, Seminole bread, weather plant or vine.

Toxin(s) Abrin, which inhibits protein synthesis in cells of the intestinal wall.

Toxic part(S) The seed is the toxic part. if it is swallowed whole, it will usually pass without release of the toxic principle.

Signs Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (sometimes hemorrhagic), hypovolemia, electrolyte disturbances.

Treatment The effects may not be seen until many hours to days after ingestion. Gastric or enteric emptying is unrewarding in patients who are showing signs. Treatment is supportive. Administer fluids to support hydration and perfusion. Electrolytes must be determined and imbalances corrected.

 

Argemone spp.

Common name(s) Prickly poppy, thornapple.

Toxin(s) Toxic alkaloids including protopine, berberine, sanguinarine, and dihydrosanguinarine.

Toxic part(s) Mostly the seeds or oil from the seeds.

Signs Small animals are unlikely to be poisoned by this plant. The alkaloids will cause gastrointestinal disturbances, if ingested.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

 

Arisaema spp.

Commonname(s) Green dragon, dragon arum, dragon tail, dragon's-head (A. draconitium; do not confuse with the mint Dracocephalum), Jack-in-the-pulpit, bog onion, brown dragon, cuckoo plant, memory root, pepper turnip, priests pentle (A. triphyllum), starchwort, three-leaved Indian turnip, wakerobin.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glu co corticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely, the swelling will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway.

Arum spp.

Common name(S) Adam-and-Eve plant, black calla, caladium, cuckoopint, Italian arum, Solomon's lily.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocorticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely, swelling of the tongue, glottis, or pharynx will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway.

 

Astragalus spp.

Commonname(s) Crazyweed, emory milk vetch, locoweed, milk vetch, poison vetch, red-stemmed peavine, Texas loco, timber milk vetch, woolly locoweed. (See also Oxytropis spp.)

Toxin(s) several alkaloids, methemoglobin formation.

Toxic part(S) Leaves.

Signs Poisoning of dogs and cats would be unlikely with this plant. It has been known to cause serious loss in cattle, sheep, and other range animals. Humans have also been reported to have been poisoned. Signs reported in humans are related to selenium accumulation. Reported signs include pallor, garlicky odor on the breath, gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, tightness in the chest, drowsiness, and brain damage.

Treatment Treatment is supportive and symptomatic. If methemoglobinemia is detected, it is treated as follows:

1. Ascorbic acid 20 to 30 mg/kg PO or 20 mg/kg IV slowly
2. Methylene blue

Dogs    3 to 4 mg/kg IV slowly if ascorbic acid has not been
             of benefit.

Cats    1.5 mg/kg has been reported to be beneficial to cats with nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia. Given in the absence of               methemoglobinemia, methylene blue may cause Heinz body formation.

 

Atropa belladonna

Common name(S) Deadly nightshade, belladonna, black nightshade, nightshade, sleeping nightshade.

Toxin(s) Atropine and other belladonna alkaloids.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Ingestion causes atropine-like signs-dry mouth, repeated swallowing efforts, dysphagia, tachycardia, mydriasis, and urinary retention.

Treatment If ingestion was recent, gastric emptying by induction of emesis or lavage is appropriate. Administer activated charcoal and a cathartic. Human literature recommends slow IV administration of physostigmine to effect, that is, until symptoms abate or until cholinergic signs appear. Since belladonna alkaloids have a longer half-life than physostigmine has, repeated doses of physostigmine may be required.

 

Aucuba japonica

Common name(s) Japanese aucuba, Japanese laurel.

Toxin(s) Aucubm, a glycoside.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Moderate signs of GI upset including nausea, vomiting, and rarely diarrhea.

Treatment Rarely necessary. Supportive for fluid loss and electrolyte imbalance


B


Baptisia spp.



Common name(s) Wild indigo, cloverbloom, false indigo (when not Amorpha), horse fleaweed, horsefly, horsefly weed, prairie indigo, rattlebush, rattleweed, shoofly.

Toxin(s) Alkaloids including cytisine.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Rare. Nausea, possibly vomiting. The toxin theoretically could cause hypoventilation and respiratory arrest.

Treatment  If emesis has not occurred, gastric emptying is advised. Activated charcoal and cathartic are administered. if respiratory depression is significant, secure the airway and ventilate the patient. If constipation or urinary retention are noted, they may respond to administration of bethanechol.

Boletus spp.

See Mushrooms

 

Brassica spp.

Common name(s) Mustard.

Toxin(s) Mustard oils including isothiocyanate and betaphenyl isothiocyanate.

Toxic part(s) Mostly the roots and the seeds.

Signs The toxins are very irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes. ingestion may cause gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (sometimes bloody). If the toxin should gain access to the eye, permanent blindness may result. Contact with the skin will cause blistering and burning with intense pruritus and self -mutilation.

Treatment  Treatment involves gastrointestinal decontamination including induction of emesis (p. 50) or gastric lavage as necessary. Activated charcoal is recommended. Dermal exposure is treated by bathing the affected area with a mild shampoo and copious rinsing. Mustard oil in the eye should be treated by copious irrigation of the eye with water or saline. Gastrointestinal disturbances (vomiting, diarrhea) may result in hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalances, and dehydration, which require assessment and treatment.

Caesalpinia spp.

Common name(S) Bird -of -paradise bush (see Strelitzia reginae for the bird-of -paradise flower), Barbados pride, dwarf
                               poinciana.

Toxin(s) Tannins.

Toxic part(s) Seeds (roasting the seed renders them edible).

Signs GI signs including vomiting and diarrhea.

Treatment Rarely indicated. Recovery is usually seen within 24 hours. Fluid therapy may be indicated in cases where losses
                   exceed intake.

Calla palustfis

Common name(s) Water arum, female water dragon, water dragon, wild calla.

Toxin(s) calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant, especially the roots.

Signs Pain and swelling of Jae oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glu co corticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely the swelling will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway.

Calotropis spp.

Common name(s) Crown flower, giant milkweed.

Toxin(s) Cardiac glycoside, vesicant (may induce allergic dermatitis rather than direct effect).

Toxic part(S) The whole plant contains the glycoside. The latex contains the vesicant.

Signs Acrid taste usually limits ingestion. Exposure of the skin or mucous membranes to the latex may result in vesicle formation. Keratoconjunctivitis will result if the cornea is exposed. ingestion of significant quantities will result in ECG abnormalities.

Treatment Wash the exposed tissue with plenty of warm water and soap. Flush the eyes with sterile saline or water for 15 minutes. If cardiac abnormalities are seen, manage according to ECG assessment.

 

Caltha spp.

Common name(S) Bull flower, cowslip, kingcup, horse blob, May blob, meadow bright, soldier's buttons.

Toxin(s) Protoanemonin.

Toxic part(s) Whole mature plant (immature plants are boiled and eaten as greens).

Signs The toxin is quite irritating to mucous membranes. Blisters are commonly seen after the plant is chewed. Ingestion is rare. If ingested, signs of severe, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis are seen.

Treatment Usually only symptomatic for oral vesicles or ulceration. Rarely, gastric emptying may be required if large ingestions are witnessed. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are administered after gastric emptying. Fluids are administered to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as necessary. Analgesics may be indicated.

Calycanthus spp.

Common name(S) American allspice, Carolina allspice, calycanth, pineapple shrub, spicebush, strawberry bush, strawberry shrub, sweet shrub, sweet Bettie, bubby-blossoms, bubbybush.

Toxin(s)  Calycanthin, other alkaloids.

Toxic part(s)  seeds.

Signs  No case reports were found in the literature. Reports of animals given the alkaloids indicate that the animals suffered strychnine-like convulsions, myocardial depression, and hypotension.

Treatment  No convincing recommendations were found in the literature. Treatment would he supportive and symptornatic.

Caryota spp.   

Common name(s) Clustered fishtail palm, fishtail palm, J . aggary palm, toddy fishtail palm, tufted fishtail palm, wine palm.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly irritant proteins.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant, especially the roots.

Signs  Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment  Usually none required. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocorticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely the swelling will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway

 

Caulophyflum, thafictroides

Common name(S) Blue cohosh, blueberry root, papoose root, squaw root, blue ginseng, yellow ginseng.

Toxin(s)    Saponins, N-methycytisine, which is a nicotine-like alkaloid.

Toxic part(S) Berries and roots.

Signs Usually limited to gastroenteritis.

Treatment Rarely necessary; fluid replacement for excessive losses.


Cestrurn spp.

Common name(S) Day-blooming jessamine (jasmine), night-blooming jessamine (jasmine), Chinese inkberry.

Toxin(s) Solanine (a cholinesterase-inhibiting compound) predominates in unripe berries, whereas tropane alkaloids (which are like atropine) are prevalent in the ripe berry. Saponins, alkaloids, and traces of nicotine are also found in plants. Cestrum diurnum contains 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D glucoside.

Toxic part(S) Fruit, leaves, and sap are poisonous.

Signs Both solanine and tropane may mimic atropine poisoning (mydriasis, tachycardia, xerostorma, dyspnea, ileus, urinary retention, CNS stimulation followed by depression, paralysis, seizures). If solanine predominates, mild to severe gastrointestinal signs may predominate. Normal to increased borborygmi may indicate predominance of solanine, whereas lack of bowel sounds may hint at an atropine-like toxin.

Treatment Rarely, fluid therapy to replace losses. In cases where atropine-like signs are life threatening, physostigmine may be carefully administered (CAUTION: physostigmine may cause asystole). Begin with 0.02 mg/kg administered TV over 5 minutes. If delerium or coma is abolished, use repeated dosesas needed. If no effect is noted or gastrointestinal signs predominate, consider cautious administration of atropine and observe for signs of improvement. Tachydysrhythmias that do not respond to physostigmine may respond to administration of propranolol. if Cestrum diurnum is the plant involved, monitor for evidence of hypercalcemia and treat accordingly.

 

Chenopodium spp.

Common name(S) Lamb's -quarters, goosefoot.

Toxin(s) Nitrates and oxalic acid.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs No reports of cases involving dogs and cats were found. Poisoning has been reported in humans and geese, but evidence of poisoning was not detected when the plants were fed to swine.

Treatment No studies have been done to determine efficacy of treatment protocols. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

 

Chlorophyllum SPP-

See Mushrooms

 

Cicuta spp.

Common name(S)  Beaver poison, children's bane, deathof-man, musquash poison, musquash root, spotted cowbane, water hemlock.

Toxin(s) Cicutoxin.

Toxic part(S) Entire plant.

Signs Reports of small animal cases of cicutoxin poisoning are lacking. Poisoning of livestock and humans are reported most often. Signs include frothing at the mouth, tremors, convulsions, mydriasis, violent gastrointestinal disturbances, collapse, paralysis, repiratory failure, and death. The signs progress rapidly.

Treatment There is no known treatment. if the victim lives >2 hours, it will likely survive. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

 

Clitocybe spp.   

See Mushrooms

 

Chidocolus


See Urtica spp.

 

Cokhkum autumnale

Common name(S) Autumn crocus, crocus, fall crocus, meadow saffron, mysteria, naked lady, wonder bulb.

Toxin(s) The alkaloid colchicine and related compounds.

Toxic part(S) Entire plant, especially bulbs.

Signs Salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, respiratory depression, muscle weakness, collapse, shock, and death. Renal failure is also possible in some patients surviving the initial signs.

Treatment Gastric emptying (emesis or lavage) followed by activated charcoal. Cathartics are recommended but usually not necessary because of the purgative action of the toxin. Fluids are administered as necessary to maintain blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Urine output should be monitored for signs of acute renal failure. The ECG should be monitored and dysrhythmias treated by conventional means. Electrolyte imbalances should be corrected,

 

Colocasia spp.

Common name(S) Elephant's ear, elephant ear (see also Alocasia), dasheen, taro.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and possibly other irritant proteins.

Toxic part(S) Leaves and stems.

Signs Oral pain, edema of the mouth and oropharynx; rarely swelling will interfere with swallowing or breathing.

Treatment Usually none necessary. The irritant nature of the toxin usually prevents serious ingestion in animals. Treatment of the oral pain and swelling is symptomatic . Rarely the swelling may block the airway, requiring immediate action to secure the airway.

 

Conium spp.

Common name(s) California tern, cashes, European hemlock, herb bonnet, kill-cow, Nebraska fern, poison hemlock, poison parsley, snakeweed, spotted hemlock, spotted parsley, winter fern, wodc whistle.

Toxin(s) Conime and other alkaloids.

Toxic part(s) Roots and seeds are most toxic, but the entire plant is toxic.

Signs Reports of small animal toxicosis are lacking. Signs in livestock and humans are similar to nicotine poisoning. Signs include hypersalivation, abdominal pain, burning sensation of the mouth and mucous membranes, weakness, paralysis, bradycardia, mydriasis, weak pulses, frequent urination, collapse, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment Specific treatment regimens are lacking for small animal ingestion. Routine gastrointestinal decontamination (emesis, gastric lavage, activated charcoal, cathartics) and symptomatic and supportive treatment are recommended

 

Conocybe spp., Copelandia spp., Coprinus spp


See Mushrooms,

 

Convallaria majalis  


Common name(S) Lily of the valley.

Toxin(s) Cardiac glycosides, including convallotoxin.

Toxic part(s) whole plant.

Signs Vomiting, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, ataxia, cardiac dysrhythmias, weakness, confusion, collapse, and death.

Treatment In the case of a witnessed ingestion, the animal should be made to vomit (see Emesis induction, p. 50) followed by administration of activated charcoal. Treat as for digitalis overdose. The use of Digibind may be considered in patients suffering life -threatening signs of poisoning, although the efficacy of this product has not been proved in poisoning by this plant.

Croton spp.


Common name(s) Croton, Texas croton.

Toxin(s) Oil of croton.

Toxic part(s) Seeds.

Signs Burning sensation in the mouth is reported by humans. Animals may paw at the mouth, salivate, and vomit. Tachycardia, diarrhea (sometimes bloody), coma, and death may result.

Treatment The oil is very potent in the dog. Witnessed ingestions of the seeds should be followed by immediate induction of emesis. If emesis does not occur, gastric lavage is indicated, followed by administration of activated charcoal. Other treatment regimens are symptomatic and supportive.

 

Cycas revoluta

Common name(S) False sago palm, sago palm. (There appears to be some confusion in naming these plants. Some sources list the false sago palm as Cycas revoluta, whereas others list it as the "true" sago palm.)

Toxin(s) Cycasin, macrozainin, and possibly others.

Toxic part(s) Seeds have caused poisoning in dogs. Other parts of the plants may be toxic, including the root ball.

Signs Signs develop in 12 hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal signs (vomiting, anorexia, abdominal discomfort) are followed by signs of acute hepatotoxicity. Polydipsia, ascites, icterus, and cirrhosis may be found. Bruising, epistaxis, hemoptysis, melena, hematochezia, and hernarthrosis may be seen as a result of a developing coagulopathy. The coagulopathy is characterized by thrombocytopenia, prolongation of PT, activated clotting time, and activated PTT. Laboratory analysis will often reveal elevated bilirubin levels, elevated liver enzymes (although these may not be dramatic), hypoproteinernia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, azotemia, and a metabolic alkalosis. Urine analysis may reveal glucosuria, bilirubinuria, hematuria, and crystals or casts in the sediment.

Treatment The prognosis for cycad poisoning is generally poor. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive (see Section One). Witnessed ingestions indicate the need for immediate induction of emesis or gastric lavage, followed by administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic.


D


Daphne spp.


Common name(s)
Dwarf bay, February daplmc, flax olive, lady laurel, mezereon, mezereum, spurge laurel, spurge olive.

Toxin(s) Mezereinic acid anhydride (an irritant) and dap1min.

Toxic part(S) The entire plant is toxic.

Signs Dermal exposure may cause systemic signs. Experimentally, dried bark of Daphne was fed to dogs and produced a fatal syndrome. Systemic signs include gastroenteritis (perhaps bloody), weakness, collapse, shock, coma, and death. Con


Treatment Dermal exposure should be treated with aggressive bathing and rinsing. The caregiver must take care to avoid exposure of himself or herself to the plant. Ingestion should be treated with gastrointestinal emptying followed by activated charcoal and cathartic administration. Fluids are administered to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Urine production should be monitored. Attention should be paid to electrolyte levels and imbalances corrected.

 

Datura spp.   


Common name(S) Datura, devil's-apple (when not Podophyllum or Mandragora or Solanum), devil's trumpet, Indian apple (D. metaloides; when not Podophyllum), Jamestown weed, Jimsonweed, mad apple, moonflower, sacred datura (D. metaloides), stinkweed, tolguacha.

Toxin(s) Atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine.

Toxic part(S) Entire plant, especially the seeds.

Signs Signs relate to parasympatholytic action of the alkaloids; the syndrome resembles atropine poisoning (mydriasis, tachycardia, xerostomia, dyspnea, ileus, urinary retention, CNS stimulation followed by depression, paralysis, seizures).

Treatment Rarely, fluid therapy to replace losses. in cases where atropine-like signs are lite threatening, physostigmine may be carefully administered (CAUTION: physostigmine may cause asystole). Begin with 0.02 mg/kg administered IV over 5 minutes, It delirium or coma is abolished, use repeated doses as needed. Tachydysrhythmias that do not respond to physostigmine may respond to administration of propranolol.

 

Delphinium spp.


Common name(s)
Larkspur, delphinium, poisonweed (when not a lupine), staggerweed (when not a Dicentra or a Stachys.

Toxin(s) Several alkaloids, one of which has curarc-like (neuromuscular blockade) effects.

Toxic part(S) The whole plant is toxic.

Signs No reports of cases involving dogs and cats have been found. Poisoning has been reported in humans, cattle, horses, and sheep. Signs include muscular weakness, hyperexcitability, confusion, salivating followed by dry mouth, bloating, constipation, vomiting or regurgitation, collapse, convulsions, coma, and death. Sudden death may be seen if significant quantities are ingested.

Treatment No studies have been done to determine efficacy of treatment protocols. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Physostigmine is reported to be effective in larkspur poisoning. Carefully administer 0.04 to 0.08 mg/kg IV slowly to effect. Repeat dosing may be required.


Dicentra spp.


Common name(S) Bleedingheart, Dutchman's-breeches, squirrel corn, staggerweed (but see also Delphinium), western bleedingheart, wild bleedingheart.

Toxin(s) Protopine, an isoquinoline alkaloid.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Acute onset after ingestion of the plant. Trembling, hyperexcitability, salivation, and vomiting are seen within minutes. Signs can progress to recumbency, opisthotonos, and seizures. Death occurs rarely. This is not a common small animal poisoning but is more likely in ruminants.

Treatment If ingestion is noted, gastric emptying through induction of emesis (p. 5 0) or gastric lavage is indicated. Most animals recover without treatment. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.



Dieffenbachia spp.


Common name(S) Dumbcane.

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate crystals, which the plant, using special contractile cells, actually propels into the tissue of the patient. Recently, research has disclosed that proteolytic enzymes are also contained by these plants. Such enzymes trigger the release of histamines and kinins in the body and contribute to clinical signs.

Toxic part(s) Entire plant.

Signs Immediate pain in the mouth on chewing the plant. The animal may recoil from the plant, begin to salivate heavily, and shake its head vigorously. A change of voice may be noted by owners. The tissues of the mouth and throat will swell, rarely causing obstruction of the airway. Dyspnea or painful respirations may be noted. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be seen. Discussion of rare cardiac dysrhythmias, mydriasis, coma, and death resulting from ingestion of durnbcanes (and other members of the family Araceae) are found in the literature.

Treatment Symptomatic and supportive. Rinse the mouth with water or milk. The calcium in the milk may precipitate soluble oxalates. Antihistamines may be useful. Fluids and electrolytes may be necessary in patients who have severe fluid losses or hypotension.


Digitalis spp.

Common name(S) Digitalis, fairy bells, fairy cap, fairy glove, fairy thimbles, folk's-glove, foxglove, lady's thimbles, lion's-mouth, popdock, rabbit flower, thimbles, throatwort, witch's thimbles.

Toxin(s) Numerous, including cardiac and steroid glycosides.


Toxic part(s) The entire plant as well as water from vases containing foxglove plants.

Signs Abdominal Pain, nausea, vomiting, salivation, and local irritation of the mucous membranes are noted soon after ingestion. Pulses may be slow and strong (early with moderate digitalis-like intoxication) or rapid and weak (later). Cardiac conduction disturbances are seen on ECG and may be severe enough to contribute to signs including ataxia, hypotension, shock, collapse, and death. Pupils may be dilated. Delirium may be followed by coma. Hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypoglycemia may be seen on laboratory analysis.

Treatment The gastrointestinal tract should be decontaminated. induction of emesis or gastric ravage should be performed as needed, followed by administration of activated charcoal. Cathartics should also be used if necessary. Treat as for digitalis overdose. Digibind (Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Pk., NC 27709) has been used successfully in treating digitalis overdose in humans and dogs. Research has revealed that Digibind given at a dose of 60 mg/kg IV resulted in survival (from oleander, which contains cardiac glycoside toxins similar to those from Digitalis spp.) and conversion to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat injections may be necessary. in humans, digitalis-like intoxications may be treated with temporary cardiac pacing by use of a transvenous pacemaker. This option should be explored. A call to a pacemaker company may bring a representative who can offer a temporary, external pacemaker. The technique to implant the leads and set up the pacemaker is not difficult.

Serum potassium should be monitored. The patient should be treated for hypokalemia or hyperkalemia if necessary. Cardiac dysrhythmias may be treated with phenytoin.


E


Epiprenum spp.


Common name(S) Devil's ivy, golden pothos, marble queen, pothos, taro vine, variegated philodendron

Toxin(s) Calcium oxalate and perhaps proteolytic enzymes.

Toxic part(s) Probably the entire plant including the roots.

Signs Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment Usually none required. Rinse the mouth copiously with water or milk. Give the animal milk or other source of calcium. The calcium may precipitate soluble oxalates. Antihistamines may be helpful. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocorticosteroid would help with the inflammation. Rarely, swelling of the tongue, glottis, or pharynx will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway

 

Eupatorium spp.   

Common name(S) Boneset, richweed, snakeroot, thoroughwort, white sanicle, white snakeroot.

Toxin(s) Tremetol and certain glycosides.

Toxic part(s) Entire plant.

Signs Poisoning is likely only in dogs and cats fed raw milk from a cow grazing on these plants. No reports have been found in the literature, though other species have been poisoned including cows, horses, sheep, goats, and humans. This syndrome is not acute, and recovery from nonlethal ingestions usually extends over several days to weeks. Weakness, nausea, vomiting, tremors, liver damage, dyspnea - tachypnea, collapse, convulsions, coma, and death have been described.

Treatment No studies have been done to determine treatment. Recommendations at this time would be for routine decontamination (gastric emptying, activated charcoal, and a cathartic) and symptomatic support.

 

Euphorbia spp.

Commonname(s) Candelabra cactus, caper spurge, Christthorn (E. milli; do not confuse with Paliuris or Ziziphus), crown of thorns, cypress spurge, flat-topped spurge, flowering spurge, leafy spurge, hairy spurge, Indian-tree spurge, milkbush, milk spurge, monkey-fiddle, penciltree, petty spurge, poinsettia, snow- on -the - in ountain, spotted spurge, sun spurge, toothed spurge.

Toxin(s) Phorbol esters.

Toxic part(s) Leaves, stems, and sap.

Signs Severe irritation of the oropharynx and esophagus. Coughing, choking, retching, and pawing at the mouth may be noted. Voirriting, diarrhea, temporary blindness, and intestinal cramping may also be seen. Syncope has been reported to occur in humans.

Treatment There are no antidotes. Treatment is symptornatic and supportive (see Section One). Gastric emptying via induction of emesis or gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal and a cathartic is indicated. Fluid and electrolyte needs must be attended to.

The poinsettia has long been believed by the public to be highly toxic. Research fails to confirm this because lethal toxicosis could not be produced in rats. The Illinois Animal Poison Control Center reports that ingestion rarely causes a problem. When entire plants were eaten, the animals may have significant vomiting and diarrhea requiring fluid and electrolyte therapy.


G


Galerina spp.    

See Mushrooms

 

Gelsemium sempervirens

Common name(s) Carolina jessamine (jasmine), Carolina yellow jessamine (jasmine), trumpet flower, yellow jessamine.

Toxin(s) Gelsemine and gels eminine-alkal oids related to strychnine.

Toxic part(s) Entire plant including nectar. Honey made from nectar may be toxic,

Signs No cases of poisoning in dogs or cats have been found. Signs in humans and livestock include intense muscle cramps, weakness, convulsions, hypoventilation, and paralysis of motor nerves. Death is from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment No studies have been done to determine specific treatment. Decontamination and treatment is symptomatic and supportive, except that induction of emesis should not be recommended because of the possibility of rapid onset of seizures.

 

Gloriosa spp.  

Commonname(s) Climbing lily, gloriosa lily, glory lily, lily.

Toxin(s) Colchicine and other alkaloids.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant including root stock.

Signs Cases involving dogs and cats have been found. Poisoning has been reported in humans. Signs reported included numbness of the lip, tongue, and throat; gastrointestinal distress; difficulty breathing; collapse; shock; convulsions; and death.

Treatment No studies have been done to determine efficacy of treatment protocols. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive

 

Gymnopilus spp.

See Mushrooms,

Gyromitra spp.

See Mushrooms,

 

H

 

Hedera helix

Common name(S) Algerian ivy, Canary ivy, English ivy, ivy, Madeira ivy.

Toxin(s) A saponin called hederagenin by one reference but hederin by another.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant is toxic.

Signs Reports of poisoning of children are found in the literature. Signs include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, excitement, difficulty in breathing, and convulsions (rarely).

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive

 

Hemerocallis spp.

Common name(S) Day lily.

Toxin(s) Unknown.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant is toxic to cats.

Signs Cats are reported to be sensitive to an unknown toxin found in these lily species. Ingestion of this toxin results in nonspecific signs followed by acute renal failure (usually anuric) within 24 to 48 hours. It is unknown whether dogs or birds are sensitive to the toxin found in these plants.

Treatment There is no specific antidote. If a dog or cat is witnessed ingesting Hemerocallis, immediate induction of emesis 0 gastric lavage is indicated followed by administration of activated charcoal and cathartic. Fluid diuresis is indicated. Urine production should be maintained at at least 2 mL/kg/hour in the cat and 3 mL/kg/hour in the dog. If aggressive treatment is begun early enough to maintain renal tubular flow, the recovery rate is satisfactory. If, however, the renal failure syndrome develops, mortality is high. Dialysis has been reported to be successful in patients (at least one reported) even after the renal failure became apparent.

 

Hippeastrum spp.

Common name(S) Amaryllis, Barbados lily, belladonna lily, cape belladonna, lirio, naked lady lily, pink-lady, resurrection lily. (See also Amaryllis)

Toxin(s) Lycorine (an emetic) and small amounts of alkaloids.

Toxic part(s) Bulbs.

Signs Related to gastroenteritis-usually mild vomiting, diarrhea.

Treatment Rarely necessary. Fluid replacement may be required in patients more severely affected.

 

Hyacinthus spp.

Common name(S) Hyacinth, garden hyacinth.

Toxin(s) Confusion seems to exist on the toxicity of Hyacinthus. One reference reports the toxic principal as calcium oxalate crystals, whereas another lists alkaloids that cause gastrointestinal distress as the toxin.

Toxic part(s) Bulbs are most toxic.

Signs Signs listed include only gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting. if calcium oxalate crystals were the toxin, one would expect signs similar to those seen with exposure to plants of the Araceae family.

Treatment Gastrointestinal decontamination including emesis, lavage, and activated charcoal would be indicated. If signs of oral irritation and pain exist, allowing the pet to drink milk may cause precipitation of soluble oxalates.

 

Hydrangea spp.

Common name(s) Hydrangea.

Toxin(s) The plant is known to contain a cyanogenic glycoside called "hydrangin" (or "umbelliferone"), but signs of poisoning rarely mimic cyanide poisoning.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant is toxic.

Signs Poisoning of dogs and cats is rare. Signs may include gastrointestinal signs (vomiting, diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, colic) or, rarely, signs of cyanide poisoning (tachypnea, respiratory distress, cherry-red blood).

Treatment Witnessed ingestions should be treated with gastric emptying and activated charcoal. Treatment for gastrointestinal signs are symptomatic and supportive.


I

Ilex spp.

Common name(S) Holly.

Toxin(s) most references list ilicin as the toxin; however, others attribute toxicity to theobromine and caffeine.

Toxic part(s) Leaves and berries.

Signs Gastrointestinal distress and CNS depression have been reported. Poisoning by ingestion of holly is rare.

Treatment Symptomatic and supportive

 

Inocybe spp.

See Mushrooms,

 

Ipomoea tricolor


Common name(S) Blue star, flying saucers, heavenly blue, morning glory, pearly gates, summer skies, wedding bells.

Toxin(s) LSD and related compounds.

Toxic part(s) Seeds.

Signs These are hallucinogenic compounds and as such cause bizarre behavior in animals. Animals may appear confused, ataxic, vocalize, frantic, restless, or disoriented. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hypotension have been seen. Mydriasis has been reported.

Treatment Gastroenteric emptying (emesis or gastric lavage if indicated) is followed by administration of activated charcoal. Seizures are controlled by administration of diazepam or barbiturates if needed. Phenothiazine tranquilizers may be of benefit but are known to lower the seizure threshold; therefore the caregiver must be aware that administration may precipitate seizure activity.

 

Iris spp.


Common name(s) Iris, fleur-de-lis.

Toxin(s) Irisen.

Toxic part(s) Leaves and root stock, rhizomes.

Signs No reports of poisoning of dogs and cats have been found. Signs reported in humans include a burning sensation, congestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps; possible blindness.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive

 

Isocoma spp.

Common name(s) Burroweed, goldenrod, jimmyweed, rayless goldenrod.

Toxin(s) Tremetol.

Toxic part(s) whole plant.

Signs No reports of cases involving dogs and cats were found. Poisoning has been reported in humans who drank milk from cows that were eating these plants. Signs reported in poisoned humans included gastrointestinal distress, vomiting, constipation, weakness, tremors, liver damage, anuric or oliguric renal failure, seizures, coma, and death.

Treatment No studies that determine efficacy of treatment protocols have been found. Treatment would be symptomatic and supportive.


J


Jatropha spp.

Common name(S) Barbados nut, coral plant, jatropha, physic nut.

Toxin(s) The sap contains the toxalbumin curcin, a phytotoxin.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant, especially the seeds.

Signs Reports of poisoning in humans are common, but animal toxicity reports are lacking. Gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, colic, muscle cramps, drowsiness, coma, and rarely death. Recovery from nonlethal ingestion is usually complete after 24 hours.

Treatment Treatment protocols are not found in the literature. Routine decontamination and symptomatic support are indicated.

 

Juglans spp.    

Common name(S) Black walnut.

Toxin(s) Juglone (5-hydroxynaphthoquinone) was previously identified as the toxin, but this is no longer believed to be the toxic agent.

Toxic part(s) Hulls, sawdust from the black walnut tree.

Signs Signs reported in the literature (for canines) include vomiting and seizures. Not all samples of black walnut hulls or shavings are toxic.

Speculating: perhaps the convulsions seen in the dog are related to the growth of a fungus that produces penitrem A. The growth of this neurotoxin-producing fungus in nuts is a common occurrence in California, so commonly associated with walnuts that it was called "walnut poisoning" for many years before the toxin (penitrem A) was identified.

Treatment The stomach should be emptied and activated charcoal administered with a cathartic. Abnormal muscle activity (tremors, tonic-clonic spasms) may be controlled with diazepam and methocarbamol. Phenothiazine tranquilizers are known to lower the seizure threshold but have been used (anecdotally) without any apparent harm in cases of ingestions of tremorogenic substances such as penitrem A.


K


Kalmia


Common name(S) Bog laurel, calfkill, calico bush, dwarf laurel ivy bush lambkill mountain laurel palel aurel sheepkill wicky.

Toxin(s) Andromedotoxin.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant is toxic.

Signs Cats have been poisoned by these plants. Some believe that secondary poisoning may result in carnivores eating the flesh of animals that ingested Kalmia. Signs include epiphora, ptyalism, and nasal discharge. Neurologic signs including lateral recumbency with limb paddling, intermittent ,running fits," opisthotonos, and paralysis of the limbs. Death may result.

Treatment Routine gastrointestinal decontamination (emesis or gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal and a cathartic if necessary) is recommended. Multiple doses of activated charcoal are advised at 2- to 3-hour intervals. Bradycardia may be treatable with atropine if necessary. Fluids are given to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Monitor electrolytes and correct imbalances. Monitor ECG for cardiac dysrhythmias, and treat by previously accepted means.

L


Laburnum anagyroides

Common name(S) Bean tree, golden chain, laburnum.

Toxin(s) Cytisine.

Toxic part(s) Pods and seeds are highly toxic, but other parts of the plant also contain the toxin.

Signs Cytisine is similar to nicotine and the signs noted are similar. Excitement, incoordination, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urination, and lacrimation may be seen. Mydriasis may be noted. Convulsions, tremors, muscular twitches, and paresis or paralysis may be followed by tachycardia, collapse, coma, and death.

Treatment See Nicotine.


Lactarius spp.

See Mushrooms.


Lantana spp.

Common name(S) Lantana.

Toxin(s) Lantanin or lantadene A.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant.

Signs Photosensitization has been seen in animals. Poisoning has been reported in humans, with signs that include gastrointestinal distress, bloody diarrhea, muscular weakness, jaundice, collapse, and even death.

Treatment No studies have been done to determine efficacy of treatment protocols. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Remove the animal from the source of the plant if chronic dermatitis or photo sensitization occurs.


Laportea spp.

See Urfica spp.


Lathyrus spp.

Common name(s) Caley pea, everlasting pea, flat pea, singletary pea, sweet pea, wild winter pea.

Toxin(s) Amine-bearing compounds.

Toxic part(s) The whole plant, especially the seeds.

Signs Reports of sweet pea poisoning in the small animal patient are not reported. The plant is known to be toxic to livestock and humans and is listed here for completeness. Signs reported in livestock and humans include permanent paralysis, bone deformities, cardiovascular collapse, pain, lameness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, and death.

Treatment Specific treatment advice cannot be recommended because this intoxication has not been studied. Treatment is therefore said to be "symptomatic and supportive".



Lepiota spp.   

See Mushrooms



Ligustra spp.

Common name(s) Japanese privet, privet, waxleaf privet.

Toxin(s) Unknown alkaloids.

Toxic part(s) Mostly the berries and leaves.

Signs Gastrointestinal signs including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, collapse, convulsions, acute renal failure, hypothermia, and death. Small animal poisonings have not been reported. Only cases involving humans (children primarily) and livestock have been reported.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Witnessed ingestion should be treated by immediate induction of emesis or gastric lavage followed by administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic (if necessary).


Liflum spp.

Common name(s) Easter lily, Japanese show lily, rubrum lily, tiger lily.

Toxin(s) unknown.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant is toxic to cats.

Signs Cats are reported to be sensitive to an unknown toxin found in these lily species. Ingestion of this toxin results in nonspecific signs followed by acute renal failure (usually anuric) within 24 to 48 hours. It is unknown whether dogs or birds are sensitive to the toxin found in these plants.

Treatment There is no specific antidote. If a dog or cat is witnessed ingesting Lilium, immediate induction of emesis or gastric lavage is indicated, followed by administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic. Fluid diuresis is indicated. Urine production should be maintained at at least 2 mL/kg/hour in the cat and 3 mL/kg/hour in the dog. If aggressive treatment is begun early enough to maintain renal tubular flow, the recovery rate is satisfactory. If, however, the renal failure syndrome develops, mortality is high. Dialysis has been reported to be successful in patients (at least one reported) even after the renal failure became apparent.



Lobelia spp.

Common name(S) Asthma flower, Berlander lobelia, blue cardinal flower, cardinal flower, eyebright (when equatable to Indian tobacco and when not Euphrasia), gag weed, great blue lobelia, great lobelia, high belia, hog physic, Indian pink, Indian tobacco, lobelia, Lousiana belia, puke weed, red lobelia, scarlet lobelia, water Jobelia, wild tobacco (only when equatable to Indian tobacco).

Toxin(s) Lobeline, lobelamine, and other alkaloids that are similar to nicotine.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant.

Signs Lobeline has been used as an emetic, respiratory stimulant, and expectorant. Signs most often noted include nausea, vomiting, weakness, mydriasis, pain, hypothermia, salivation, diarrhea, anorexia, cardiovascular collapse, shock, and death. Poisoning of dogs and cats is unlikely because this plant is not usually eaten by these species.

Treatment There is no specific treatment. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.



Lophophora spp.

Common name(s) Cactus, mescal, mescal buttons, peyote.

Toxin(s) mescaline and other alkaloids.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant.

Signs signs reported in humans include hallucinations, anxiety, tremors, and delirium. Also reported have been headache, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps (stomach), dizziness, euphoria, depression, and forgetfulness. The effects are similar to those of LSD.

Treatment Perform gastrointestinal decontamination (emesis, gastric lavage) followed by activated charcoal. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.


Lupineus spp.

Common name(S) Bluebonnets, lupine (many types including Big Bend lupine, Douglas spurred lupine, low lupine, silvery or silky lupine, loose flower lupine, Washington lupine).

Toxin(s) Lupinine and other toxic alkaloids

Toxic part(s) All of the plant is toxic, but the pods and seeds are most toxic.

Signs No cases of poisoning involving dogs or cats have been found. Human exposure is rare. Lupine causes more deaths in range livestock than any other single plant in the states of Montana, Idaho, and Utah.

Treatment No specific treatment has been reported. Treatment would therefore be symptomatic and supportive.


'
Lycopersicon esculenturn

Common name(s) Tomato, love apple, passionflower, passion fruit.

Toxin(s) Solanine.

Toxic part(s) Leaves, vines, sprouts, and green fruit.

Signs Reports of poisoning in the small animal patient are lacking. Humans poisoned by ingestion of toxin report headache, stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, hypothermia, cardiovascular collapse, and respiratory depression.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. The stomach should be emptied by induction of emesis or gastric lavage followed by administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic if necessary. Fluids are given to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as necessary. Electrolytes should be monitored and imbalances corrected.

M

Malus sylvestris   

Common name(s) Apple,

Toxin(s) Cyanogenic compound.

Toxic part(s) Seeds, possibly leaves.

Signs Cyanide poisoning. Signs include cherry-red mucous membranes, tachypnea, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, shock, convulsions, and death. Signs progress rapidly. There is often a characteristic odor of almonds on the breath or in the stomach contents.


EMERGENCY TREATMENT

See Cyanide-emergency treatment.

Procedures

I .    Secure the airway and ventilate if needed.

2.    Administer supplemental oxygen.

3.    Secure venous access. Collect blood and urine for labontory testing.

4.    Administer isotonic crystalloids as needed to support blood pressure and perfusion.

5.    Control seizures.

6.    Treat hyperthermia if present.

Decontaminate

I .    If a known cyanide -containing substance was ingested within the last 15 minutes and no signs are present, induce
        vomiting.

2.    If a known cyanide -containing substance was ingested within the last 15 to 60 minutes and no signs are present, perform
       gastric lavage.

3.    Although cyanide is generally not adsorbed by activated charcoal, administration of activated charcoal may be of value if
        the toxin was ingested.

Administer antidotes and other supportive care

*    1.65 mL/kg 25% sodium thiosulfate IV.

*    Only if the diagnosis of cyanide is certain should sodium nitril be administered IV at 16 mg/kg. This drug may cause
       nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia, which could be fatal i cyanide poisoning is not present.

*    Hydroxocobalamin is an investigational drug that shows much promise in the treatment of cyanide toxicosis. it is currently
      not available in the United States.


Melia azedarach

Common name(s) Chinaberry, china tree, Chinaball tre umbrella tree.

 

P

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Common name(s)  American ivy, Virginia creeper, woodbine.

Toxin(s)  Oxalic acid.

Toxic part(s)  The berries are known to be toxic. The leaves are probably toxic.

Signs  No reports of small animal poisoning have been found. Children who have eaten the berries have gastrointestinal disturbances including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (which may be bloody). Headache, drowsiness, stupor, muscle cramps, acute renal failure, and death have been reported in humans.

Treatment  The stomach should be emptied by induction of emesis or gastric lavage followed by administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic if necessary. Fluids are given to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as necessary. Electrolytes should be monitored and imbalances corrected.

 

Philodendron spp.

Common name(s)  Cordaturn, horsehead, philodendron, red emerald, red princess.

Toxin(s)  Oxalates. May also initiate histamine release in the body.

Toxic part(s)  Probably the entire plant including the roots.

Signs  Pain and swelling of the oral cavity. Acute inflammation of the oropharynx accompanied by salivation, pawing at the mouth, and drooling. Edema of the lips, tongue, and throat may be seen.

Treatment  Usually none required. Rinse the mouth copiously with water or milk. Give the animal milk or other source of calcium. The calcium may precipitate soluble oxalates. Antihistamines may be helpful. Analgesics may be required. Swelling may be treated with cool compresses. It is unknown if diuretics or glucocorticosteroid would help with the inflarnmation. Rarely, swelling of the tongue, glottis, or pharynx will interfere with respiration. If necessary, secure the airway



Phoradendron spp.

Common name(s)  Mistletoe (see also Viscum album).

Toxin(s)  Phoratoxin, a lectin that inhibits cellular protein synthesis, plus other toxic amines.

Toxic part(s)  The entire plant, especially the berries.

Signs  Signs may be delayed several hours after ingestion. Gastrointestinal upset, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are commonly seen. Animals may be hypothermic, polyuric, bradycardic or tachycardic, and demonstrate mydriasis. CNS signs may include delirium, ataxia, seizures, and coma or hyperactivity. Patients may experience dyspnea. - Cardiovascular collapse, shock, and death are seen later in the severe intoxication.

Treatment  Gastroenteric emptying is accomplished by induction of emesis or gastric lavage if appropriate. Administration of charcoal with a cathartic is recommended. if CNS signs are noted, it is best to avoid cathartics that contain magnesium. Bradycardia is usually responsive to administration of atropine. Cardiac effects of the toxin are treated symptomatically. Indicated symptomatic support includes fluid and electrolyte therapy to correct imbalances.



Phytolacca spp.

Common name(s)  Pokeweed, pokeberry, poke salad, inkweed, scoke (standard spelling), skoke (a recent misspelling).

Toxin(s) A bitter glycoside and a glycoprotein.

Toxic part(s)  The entire plant.

Signs  The plant is bitter to the taste, and it is unlikely that a dog or cat will eat it. Toxicities have been reported in humans and livestock. Gastrointestinal disturbances, salivation, tremors, convulsions, and death have been reported. Boiling the leaves and roots destroys the toxin making Phytolacca fit for consumption.

Treatment  Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Ingestion should be treated by usual gastrointestinal decontamination and administration of activated charcoal.



Pieris spp.

Common name(s)  Japanese andromeda, mountain fetterbush.

Toxin(s)  Andromedotoxin.

Toxic part(s)  Leaves, flowers, and nectar. Honey made from the nectar may also contain toxin.

Signs  The toxin disrupts normal channels in the cellular membranes allowing an influx of sodium into cells. This action on the heart muscle cells may mimic digitalis intoxication (disruption of Na+/K+-ATPase allowing influx of sodium), though the mechanism is different. Signs include gastrointestinal disturbances that begin within 6 hours of ingestion. Salivation, nausea, and vomiting are seen. Epiphora, bradycardia, weakness, collapse, stupor, coma, convulsions, and death may result.

Treatment  Routine gastrointestinal decontamination (emesis or gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal and a cathartic if necessary) is recommended. Multiple doses of activated charcoal are advised at two to three intervals. Bradycardia may be treatable with atropine if necessary. Fluids are given to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Monitor electrolytes and correct imbalances. Monitor ECG for cardiac dysrhythmias and treat by previously accepted means.


Prunus spp.

Common name(s) Apricot, bitter almond, cherry (Carolina cherry, sour cherry, sweet cherry, laurel cherry), chokecherry (black western chokecherry, southwestern chokecherry, western chokecherry), peach, plum (common plum, wild plum).

Toxin(s) Cyanogenic compound (arnygdalin most commonly).

Toxic part(s)  Seeds, possibly leaves. All of the chokecherry plant including the bark contains toxin.

Signs Cyanide poisoning. Signs include cherry-red mucous membranes, tachypnea, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, shock, convulsions, and death. Signs progress rapidly. There is often a characteristic odor of almonds on the breath or in the stomach contents.

EMERGENCY TREATMENT

See Cyanide.

Procedures

1.    Secure the airway and ventilate if needed.

2.    Administer supplemental oxygen.

3 .   Secure venous access. Collect blood and urine for laboratory testing.

4.    Administer isotonic crystalloids as needed to support blood pressure and perfusion.

5.    Control seizures.

6.    Treat hyperthermia if present.

Decontaminate

1.    If a known cyanide-containing substance was ingested within the last 15 minutes and no signs are present, induce vomiting.

2.    If a known cyanide-containing substance was ingested within the last 15 to 60 minutes and no signs are present, perform
       gastric lavage.

3.    Although cyanide is generally not adsorbed by activated charcoal, administration of activated charcoal may be of value if
       the toxin was ingested.

Administer antidotes and other supportive care

*    1.65 mL/kg 25% sodium thiosulfate IV.

*    Only if the diagnosis of cyanide is certain should sodium nitrite be administered IV at 16 mg/kg. This drug may cause
       nitrite-induced methemoglobinernia, which could be fatal if cyanide poisoning is not present.


*    Hydroxocobalarnin is an investigational drug that shows much promise in the treatment of cyanide toxicosis. it is currently
       not available in the United States.


Psilocybe


See Mushrooms.



Pyracantha spp

Common name(s)  Most commonly known as pyracantha but has been called firethorn.

Toxin(s) - None known.

Toxic part(s)  The berries were believed for many years to be toxic. Studies have shown them to be safe for ingestion (at least
                        in small quantity).

Signs None.

Treatment   None necessary. This plant is included because it has long been thought of as a poisonous plant.


R


Ranunculus spp.

Common name(s) Buttercup.

Toxin(s)  Protoanemonin.

Toxic part(s)  Whole mature plant (immature plants are boiled and eaten as greens).

Signs  The toxin is quite irritating to mucous membranes. Blisters are commonly seen after the plant is chewed. Ingestion is rare. If ingested, signs of severe, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis are seen.

Treatment Usually only symptomatic for oral vesicles or ulceration. Rarely, gastric emptying may be required if large ingestions are witnessed. Activated charcoal and a cathartic are administered after gastric emptying. Fluids are administered to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as necessary. Analgesics may be indicated.



Rhamnus spp.

Common name(s) Buckthorn, coffeeberry, pigeonberry.

Toxin(s) Glycosides, which are strong laxatives.

Toxic part(s) Bark, berries (fruit), and leaves.

Signs Mild to severe gastrointestinal distress, cramping, diarrhea.

Treatment  Fluid therapy to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration as needed. Electrolyte imbalances may be corrected if detected. It is unknown if activated charcoal is effective, but administration is probably indicated.



Rheum rhaponticum

Common name(s)  Rhubarb, pie plant.

Toxin(s) Oxalic acid, calcium oxalate, potassium oxalate, and possibly other toxins.

Toxic part(s)  The leaf blades are highly toxic. The stems are nontoxic.

Signs  No cases of small animal poisoning have been found in the literature; however, this plant is considered to be nontoxic by the general public and is included here for educational purposes. Severe poisoning of livestock and humans has occurred from eating small amounts of the leaf blades (raw or cooked). Swine poisoned by the toxin develop staggering, ptyalism, and gastrointestinal disturbances and die in convulsions. in humans, symptoms reported include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, weakness, labored breathing, muscle tremors, internal bleeding, epistaxis, electrolyte imbalances (especially a refractory hypokalemia), convulsions, acute renal failure, and death. Hypocalcemia may induce tetanic spasms.

Treatment  If ingestion of a leaf is witnessed, the animal should be fed milk (to precipitate insoluble calcium oxalate) and then induced to vomit. If presented to the veterinarian, oral administration of milk, calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, or calcium hydroxide should be followed by gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal and a cathartic. Intravenous fluids are administered to support blood pressure and perfusion and hydration. Electrolytes must be monitored and imbalances corrected. Be watchful for hypocalcemia.



Rhododendron spp.

Common name(s) Azalea, California rose bay, great laurel, rhododendron, rose bay, western azalea, white laurel.

Toxin(s) A glycoside known as either andromedotoxin or grayanotoxin.

Toxic part(s) The entire plant.

Signs  The toxin disrupts normal channels in the cellular membranes allowing an influx of sodium into cells. This action on the heart muscle cells may mimic digitalis intoxication (disruption of Na+/K+-ATPase allowing influx of sodium), though the mechanism is different. Signs include gastrointestinal disturbances that begin within 6 hours of ingestion. Salivation, nausea, and vomiting are seen. Epiphora, bradycardia, weakness, collapse, stupor, coma, convulsions, and death may result.

Treatment Routine gastrointestinal decontamination (emesis or gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal and a cathartic if necessary) is recommended. Multiple doses of activated charcoal are advised at two to three intervals. Bradycardia may be treatable with atropine if necessary. Fluids are given to support blood pressure, perfusion, and hydration. Monitor electrolytes and correct imbalances. Monitor ECG for cardiac dysrhythmias and treat by previously accepted means.

 

Rhus or Toxicodendron

Rhus toxicodendron or Rhus radicans (both names for poison ivy) is often classified in the separate genus Toxicodendron

 

Ricinus communis

Common name(s) Castorbean, castor oil plant, palma christi.

Toxin(s) Ricin, an extremely potent phytotoxin.

Toxic part(s) Whole plant but particularly the seeds.

Signs Very low doses may cause acute anaphylaxis-like reaction, collapse, and death. Sometimes burning of the mouth, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, muscular twitching, convulsions, and possibly renal failure are noted.

Treatment  If ingestion is witnessed, immediate induction of vomiting is indicated. If vomiting does not clear the ingested material, gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal and a cathartic must be performed. Symptomatic support would include fluids and electrolytes while one monitors for onset of renal failure.

 

Robinia spp.

Common name(s) Black locust, locust.

Toxin(s) Robin (a Phytotoxin) and robitin (a glycoside).

Toxic part(s) Bark, leaves, and seeds.

Signs No cases of poisoning involving dogs or cats have been found. Human exposure to the poison results in nausea, vomiting, weakness, diarrhea, depression, collapse, shock, and death.

Treatment Treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

 

Russula spp.

See Mushrooms


If you do not see a particular plant on this list, the omission DOES NOT indicate the plant is not poisonious.  Always check with your veterinarian before bringing any plant into your home.

Additional Listings are in Production




                                                                                      Main Subject Index

References  - Partial Listing - In Production

Fowler, Murray E., D.V.M.
Plant Poisoning in Small Companion Animals.

St. Louis: Ralston Purina, 1981.
National Animal Poison Control Center Household Plant List
Christopher P. Chengelis.
Animal Models in Toxicology
Marcel Dekker, 1992
Michael McGuffin ,Roy Upton, Alicia Goldberg.
American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. CRC Press, LLC, 1997
Kirk, Robert W., D.V.M., and Stephen 1. Bister, D.V.M.
Handbook of Veterinary Procedures and Emergency Treatment. 

4th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1985.
Roger Tory Peterson Field Guides; Medicinal Plants
Foster & Duke; The Eastern Press, 1990
Gary D. Osweiler
Toxicology, Veterinary Medical Series,
Williams & Wilkins,
1995
 
G. Lorgue,A. Whitehead, J. Lechenet.
Clinical Veterinary Toxicology
Iowa State University Press,1996
 
Ernest Hodgson, Patricia E. Levi.
A Textbook of Modern Toxicology
Appleton & Lange,
1997
 
Michael E. Peterson,
Small Animal Toxicology
WB Saunders Company, 2000
 
Jurg Meie, Julian White ,J. Meier
Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons
CRC Press, 1995
 
Curtis D. Klaasen, Mary O. Amdur ,Curtis D. Klaassen ,John Doull.
Casarett and Doull's Toxicology.
McGraw-Hill Companies,  1995
 
Woodward, Lucia.
Poisonous Plants: A Color Field Guide.
Hippocrene Books, 1985.
 
Nancy J. Turner,Adam F. Sczawinski
Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America.
Timber Press, 1995
 
Levy, Charles Kingsley, and Richard B. Primack. A Field Guide to Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America.
The Stephen Greene Press, 1984